Discovering philosophy. Structure of Personality

Structure of Personality

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The Components

The Id

       According to Freud, the id is unconscious behavior of human beings which are considered to be primitive as well as instinctive and one is born with id (White, 1996). Under this component, there is the need for satisfaction to the needs to be provided immediately, the desire and the variouswants that human beings have. When one fails to satisfy these needs and wants, it leads to tension and anxiety. Freud observed that id tends to resolve or remove the tension and anxiety brought by the pleasure principle through imagination.

The Ego

       The Ego is another component of personality in humans and according to Freud; it is involved in dealing with real issues in life of human beings. The ego ensures that the people are able to express the impulse of id in a manner that is considered acceptable and realistic in the real world(White, 1996). The ways through which id impulses are satisfied need to be socially acceptable and realistic based on the principle of reality. The costs and the consequences of the actions in satisfying the pleasure principle are considered before making a decision.


       The final component as identified by Freud on personality structure is the superego. This is considered to be the aspect which holds all the ideals and moral standards that human beings possess internally(White, 1996). The moral standards and ideals are acquired from the society and parents, giving human beings the sense of what is right and what is considered to be wrong. The ability of human beings to make judgment on issues in life comes from the guidelines provided by superego and this, according to Freud, starts at about the age of five years(White, 1996). According to Freud, there are two primary parts of superego which include ego ideal as well as the conscience. Ego ideal is concerned with good behavior while conscience is for bad behavior.


White, T. I. (1996). Discovering philosophy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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