Study Guide for Anthropology Exam

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

19 March 2016

Remember! This is just a sample.

You can get your custom paper by one of our expert writers.

Get custom essay

103 writers online

* Study of human kind, perspective of all people & all times * Full understanding of what it means “to be human” * Very diverse as a species
* Understanding relationship between biology and culture
* Referring to the whole system
* Relating to or concerning the whole system rather than just part of the system * e.g. medicine→treatment of the whole body * consider all parts of the body:
* spiritual
* genes
* family system
* what they eat
* Comparing cultures
* No judgments made
* Belief in inherent superiority of one’s own ethnic group/culture * Tendency to view other ethnic group/culture from own perspective * Self-centeredness to one’s own ethnic group/culture * Saying goes “there’s no way like the American way” * Most cultures are generally ethnocentric * As an anthropologist, one must be open-minded

* As an anthropologist, one must think each other culture has merit within its own system * System shouldn’t be judged * Must review a culture for what it accepts
* Accept practices that one may not approve of (e.g. female circumcision) FIELDWORK * Time of data collection
* Going out to the field & studying the culture
* e.g. taking DNA samples, research, working in the lab, etc. 4 SUBFIELDS OF ANTHROPOLOGY * Franz Boas invented the “4 Field Approach”
* Practiced in the United States
* Sometimes may overlap, all anthropology
1. Linguistic Anthropology
* Study of the language of people, study of communication * Language: set of written/spoken symbols that refer to things, make it possible the transfer/knowledge from one person to the next * e.g. 6,000-7,000 spoken languages in the world * sociolinguistics: subfield of linguistics that investigate language’s social context * social norms of using language (e.g. way we talk to doctor, dog, parents) * gender is a cultural stereotype put on a person due to their sex * men and women have different uses of speech 2. Cultural Anthropology (Sociocultural)

* Culture-learned behavior that’s distinct amongst a group of people * Passed down through generations * Evolutionary; changes
* Estimated 5,000 distinct cultural groups on the planet
* Different levels of culture & sublevels
* North vs. South vs. Midwest vs. Northeast
* Studying behavior
* Kinships, family, friends, food, religion, etc.
* Specialize in different areas
* Medical anthropology: how cultures treat diseases
* Political anthropology: difference in power
* Economic anthropology: study of goods & resources
3. Archeology
* Study of the material remain of past human life & activities * Artifacts: material objects from past cultures (e.g. tools, pottery, ceramics) * Ecofacts: natural material used by humans * Features: artifacts/ecofacts that cannot be removed from their context * Excavation & lab work * Very systematic & controlled because what one uncovers, one also destroys * e.g. shipwreck: artifacts found in the water are preserved, when it’s taken above sea, artifacts are being destroyed in the process * documentation is essential * Specialties: any time period including but limited to classical archeology & contract archeology * Contract vs. Academic * Biggest difference: required by law to stop construction if artifacts are found & contact archeologists * Contract
under budget, time, law constraints 4. Biological Anthropology

* Study of human biological evolution & human biocultural variation * Evolutionary significance of variation * Unheard of to find a nearly complete fossil
* Franz Boas
* Turn of the 20th century
* “Father of Anthropology” (invented the 4 Field Approach) * Trained the first generation of well-known anthropologists * Set the standard on how anthropology should be studied in America * Came up with biocultural perspective * Ales Hrdlicka

* Worked at the Smithsonian
* Most well known for his interest in the skull
* Founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology (1918) * “Voice of the Field” * Also founded the American Association of Physical Anthropology (1929) * Charles Darwin * “History of Evolutionary Thought”

* His created ideas:
* Species Change (Evolution)
* Complied data to prove his idea
* Adaptive Radiation
* Out of one species branches multiple related species
* Idea that living things can descend from a common ancestor * Gradualism * That change occurs gradually/slowly
* Species will evolve slowly over many generations
* Natural Selection
* Recognizes the impact of the environment on living organisms HISTORY OF EVOLUTIONARY THOUGHT * Middle Ages in Europe
* 2 ideas that dominated the worldly view
* Order: natural hierarchal arrangement or order to life
* Stasis: idea that things do not change (static)
* Influenced by, created by, & perpetuated by religious beliefs * Idea
of the “Great Chain of Being” * At the top, there was a “Great Being/Supreme Being” * Also impacted the natural world; wasn’t just religious * Gradually increased to most spiritual beings (dirt→angels) * Fixity of species: referring to stasis; once things were created, they were fixed * Applied to humans and the natural world * Political System

* Related to hierarchy: monarchy were at the top of the order * Static: no one could move up the chain of command * Thoughts mirrored in political system
* Young Earth
* At the time, everyone believed the Earth was only 5,000 years old instead of millions of years old * Hence the name “Young Earth” * No one ever dared to go against the established system

* 14th-18th Centuries
* Ideas slowly began to change due to the Renaissance & the Enlightment * Revival of all these fields of study * Technological advances
* Microscope
* Telescope
* Began to realize that the world was forever moving
* “Earth is not the center of the universe”
* Printing press
* Allow quick spread of ideas/information
* Exploration
* Increased travel outside of Europe
* Encountered diverse lands & people
* Brought to life all the diversity of the planet

* Carolus Linnaeus
* Created the binomial nomenclature: classifying organisms with a two-name system * became the basis for modern taxonomy * Buffon
* Botanist in the King’s garden
* First to write how the environment influences organisms * However, did not believe that one species could change into another * Lamarck *
If an organism was in need, it could modify itself to meet the need & the change can be passed on to the next generation * “inheritance of acquired characteristics” or Lamarckism * Characteristics that are acquired during a lifetime of an individual can be inherited by his/her offspring * e.g. the giraffe’s neck grew as a result of trying to adapt to reaching higher leaves * organisms experiences stress in the environment that causes them to adapt & this adaption is passed on * Lamarck falsified (not true) * Lamarck’s ideas can be explained by epigenetic

* Chemical reactions that turn genes on/off according to the environment & can be passed down from generation to generation * Cuvier * Well-respected, comparative anatomist
* Paleontologist
* Noted extinct fossils & wanted to explain this
* Catastrophism: periodic catastrophes that would befall the Earth & cause mass extinction * Life forms from other regions would repopulate that particular area * e.g. earthquakes & tsunamis * catastrophes were represented in fossils

* Lyell
* Geologist: known as the founder of modern geology
* Uniformitarianism: geological processed that impact the earth have been uniform throughout time * Same thing at work in the present were also at work in the past * As a result, the landscape of Earth is constantly changing & very old * Malthus * Economist, clergyman

* Demographer: study of population; birth/death rates
* Idea that population size is limited by the resource availability & because of this, there will be competition among people for those limited resources * Arguing about population control * “The Essay on the Principle of Population”

* Alfred Wallace
* Naturalist & learned scholar
* Independently came up with the idea of natural selection (idea that the
environment can impact organisms) * Corresponded with Darwin * Deserves just as much credit & praise as Darwin

* Charles Darwin
* Influenced by biology, natural sciences, anthropology
* From a wealthy family
* Became knowledgeable about the current events
* Sailed around the world on “The Beagle” (for 5 years) where he collected data from the trip * By 1858, Wallace was going public, but Darwin didn’t want Wallace to receive all the credit * Origins of Species (1859): Darwin’s book on natural selection * Caused a huge stir in society NATURAL SELECTION

* “Survival of the Fittest”
* Not necessarily about physical fitness, more so about breeding * Breeding for certain traits occurs naturally based on the environment * Basic Processes * Biological variation
* Competition
* Something will happen to make people compete for limited resources * People with advantageous traits will survive * High death rate
* Selective pressure: any circumstance/phenomenon that affects the reproductive success of an organism in an environment * Determines which traits will be more advantageous * Fitness: measure of reproductive success

* How many offspring one have & how many of those offspring can have offspring * e.g. man in his 50’s had 4 kids & 15 grandkids, he has more fitness than the man in his 80’s who only had 1 grandkid * Reproduction * Passed genes on to succeeding generations

* Shift advantageous traits
* Those without the advantages will die off
* Accumulation
* Assuming selective pressure remains constant
* Traits will be more common; decrease in unfavorable traits * Trait
will accumulate over time * Population: group of people
* Measured in the population through change is by the individual * New Species? * May develop new species over time, but doesn’t have to * Change in frequencies of different traits * 23 different definition

* Contrast between Darwin & Lamarck
* Lamarck says that giraffes will “grow” their necks to meet a certain need & these traits are then passed on * Darwin says in a giraffe population, there’s a variation of neck lengths & over time, the neck length of the giraffe will increase because those with shorter necks will die off through natural selection * Medium Ground Finch Example * Biological variation in the beak size

* At first, the finches ate soft seeds that were easy to break open * Increase in beak size when there was a drought (selective pressure) * Smaller, softer seeds became unavailable so the finches had to rely on another food sources which were harder seeds * Individuals with larger beaks were able to crack open the seed (advantageous trait) * The finches with larger beaks were more able to survive & reproduce, which in turn created large beaked finches & changed the mean beak size * Peppered Moths Example * In the early 1800’s, grey moths were numerous because they were able to camouflage with the natural environment so they were less preyed on * Because of pollution, black moths were more camouflaged with the environment while grey moths were preyed on more (shift in population) * Antibiotic Resistance * Penicillin was introduced in WWII & people were surviving due to healed infections * 1947 (4 years after), mutant bacteria were forming that were resistance to penicillin * Bacteria reproduces so quickly (15-20 minutes) so natural selection occurs more quickly & resistant mutants form faster * Multiple Resistant Tuberculosis (MDRTB) * Bacteria-induced disease

* Would kill one from the inside out
* Starts in the lungs
* Antibiotics made tuberculosis scarce
* But now, there’s highly resistant forms of TB
* Resistant to two or more prime drugs used to treat TB
* Methicilin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureaus (MRSA)
* Found in hospitals
* Can survive in several types of antibiotics
* Cause infections through open wounds, weak immune system * Kills more people in the US than AIDS does * Increase hospital deaths in those that have it than those who don’t * Antibiotics kill 98% of bacteria, but 2% of bacteria are still alive & adapt to the drugs & pass on the resistance to the next generation * Key Things in Natural Selection * Environment

* Trait must be passed on; able to inherit
* Fitness (reproductive success): getting genes in the future & # of offspring who will survive to reproduce more offspring INHERITANCE * Homunculus: means “Little Man”
* Proposed that in sperm cells, there existed a tiny but fully-formed little person * Little person would just get bigger * Blending inheritance
* Children were a blend/mix of their parents, 50-50 mix of each parent * e.g. red flower + white flower = pink flower * Mendel’s worth with pea plants proved the “Little Man” theory & blending inheritance do not work * Cells * Basic unit of life

* Prokaryotic: relatively simple organisms with no nucleus (like bacteria) * Eukaryotic: contains nucleus (DNA) & organelles (sub-nuclear membrane bound components/bodies that do some function in the cell) * Cell Types * Somatic cells: make up body tissues, bone cells, cartilage, etc. * Gametes reproduction cells (sperm & egg) that contain genetic code from the parents DNA * Genetic material

* 2 chains of nucleotides (sugar+phosphate+base)
* Bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine)
* Base-pair specificity
* Adenine with thymine, guanine with cytosine
* Replication
* Development, growth, maintenance, repair
* Important that they replicate exactly
* Constantly happening
* Nuclear DNA (nDNA)
* Nucleus of every cell except red blood cells
* Thousands of genes, billions of base pairs
* Template for protein production
* Blueprint for life
* Homoplasmic: same in every cell regardless of cell type * Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) * Found in mitochondria, which produces energy for cell to function * 37 genes (much smaller segments of DNA) * Assists with mitochondrial function (production of energy) * Heteroplasmic: not identical in every cell; can be different because mitochondria can replicate & segregate HEREDITY * Gene: sequence of DNA

* Structural: a gene that’s responsible for body structures codes for activities that enable life * Regulatory: regulates the functions of other genes; turns them on/off * Homeotic gene (Hok gene) * Guides embryological development

* In many different life forms (birds, mammals, reptiles, etc.) * Genes can be long or short with bases * Chromosomes
* Humans have 46 chromosomes
* Sequence of genes
* Karyotype: organized profile of a person’s chromosomes * Autosomes (44) * Carry genetic information on physical characteristics, but don’t determine primary sex characteristics * Sex chromosomes (2) * Determine the primary sex characteristic

* XX (female), XY (male)
* Offspring receives 23 chromosomes from each parent
* Homologous pairs (23)
* Pair of chromosomes that each chromosome carries the same information * Almost the same size & carry the same trait coding but aren’t identical * Carry genetic code for the same traits CELL DIVISION

* Mitosis
* Creates 2 daughter cells
* Identical to each other & original
* Diploid number meaning they all have 46 chromosomes
* Occurs for growth & development, tissue repair, body maintenance * Meiosis * Goes through two cycles
* Leads to gametes (sex cells)
* Recombination/crossing over occurs→ exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes * 4 daughter cells that aren’t identical to each other or original * Haploid number meaning they have half the # of chromosomes, so they have only 23 chromosomes * Gamete development * Important because recombination allows for variation which is key to natural selection CELL DIVISION MISTAKES * Deletion of chromosomes, etc.

* Nondisjunction
* Failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis
* Creates daughter cells with the incorrect number of chromosomes * Monosomy: one less chromosome in a pair (only have 1 instead of 2) * Can happen to autosomes which is more tragic & can be fatal * XO Turner Syndrome: monosomy in sex chromosomes * Have only 1 X but are females

* Have 45 chromosomes instead of 46
* Won’t kill you
* Trisonomy: 3 chromosomes in a pair instead of 2
* Highly variable range of impact
* In autosomes (no X or Y)
* T21-Down Syndrome
* Extra 21 chromosomes
* Could have malfunction in the heart, etc.
* T18-Edward’s Syndrome
* Growth deficiency
* Death in about 6 months
* T13- Patou
* Only survive in a few days
* In sex chromosomes ( have X or Y)
* XXY: more feminine characteristics in a male because of more X * XXX: taller but normal fertility with possible learning disabilities * XYY: taller, lower sperm count, learning disabilities MENDELIAN TRAITS

* Worked with pea plants (height & color)
* Genetic Principles
* Law of Segregation: traits are controlled by discrete units that occur in pairs * The pairs separate during gamete formation & reunited during fertilization * Therefore, each parent contributes one of the pairs to the offspring * Gene/Allele * Gene: sequence of DNA responsible for some function

* Allele: alternate form of a gene
* Dominant: described as an allele that’s expressed in the presence of another different allele (T) * Recessive: described as an allele that’s not expressed in the presence of another different allele (t) * Locus: location of an allele on a chromosome * Homozygous: two copies of the same allele (TT)

* Heterozygous: different alleles present (Tt)
* Genotype: combination of alleles or genetic makeup (TT) * Phenotype: physical expression of alleles (tall, short, etc.) * Punnet Square (see notes for examples) * Law of Independent Assortments

* Genes that code for different sort independently from each other * Variety of offspring * Some genes go together (linkage, genes are passed together) * e.g. red hair & freckles * Inheritance in Humans

* Mendelian Inheritance: inheritance of traits controlled by alleles at one locus * a.k.a. Mendelian traits * over 18,000 of them
* either present or not
* Examples:
* Earlobes: attached (recessive) vs. unattached (dominant) * Earwax: waxy, sticky (dominant) vs. dry, flaky (recessive) * PTC Paper Test: taster (dominant) * Hair line: widow’s peak (dominant) vs. straight
(recessive) * Thumb: hitcher’s thumb (dominant) vs. no bend (recessive) * Blood type * Alleles code for antigens on the surface of the blood cells (A,B,O) * Types: A, B, O * O is recessive, A & B are co-dominant in AB

* Type A blood is either AA or AO
* Type B blood is either B or BO
* Dominant: one copy of harmful allele means you have the disorder * Acondroplasia (dwarfism) * Brachydactyly (shorter/different finger lengths)
* Recessive: must have two copies of harmful allele to get full-blown disorder * Sickle cell anemia, Tay Sachs, Cystic Fibrosis * Carriers: someone who carries one of the alleles that causes the disorder * Heterozygote expression: one allele is not completely masked POLYGENIC INHERITANCE * Tend to be continuous in their expression

* Range of variation/expression
* Skin color, height, shape of eyes, eye color
* Inheritance of traits controlled by alleles at more than one locus * Skin color * Melanin production
* Multiple loci contribution
* Co-dominant alleles
* Polygenic traits
* Environmental influence
* Has less effects on Mendelian traits
* Can’t change blood types
* More impact on polygenic traits
* Height (environment can stunt growth)
* Pleiotrophy
* One gene impacting multiple traits
* Complicated process
* Evolution: change in genetic frequencies of a trait in a population over time * Production & distribution of genetic variation * Natural
selection (environmental influence)
* Microevolution
* Small scale changes in a population
* Below the species level
* Macroevolution
* Large scale changes that occur at or above the species level * Not observed during a short time * Occurs over thousands of generations
* Difference in not one of the process, but of the scale of the change * Series of microevolution can lead to a macroevolution * Deme: group of organisms that interbreed regularly & produce offspring (a.k.a. population ) * Gene pool: all genetic information in a deme * Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

* Mathematical equation that predicts allele distribution in a population under the ideal conditions * Tools used to assess if the population alleles are changing * Ideal conditions: constant environment, all mate & have the ability to produce offspring INFLUENCES ON ALLELE FREQUENCIES * Mutation

* Change in DNA sequence
* Spontaneous: naturally occurring
* Induced: not natural, but induced by the environment
* Creates variation, which can be passed on
* Gene Flow: movement of alleles between populations
* Interbreeding
* Creating variation
* Genetic Drift: changes in allele frequencies caused by random events * Bottleneck Effect * Reduction possible in genetic variation
* Something drastic happens & the population is suddenly reduced * e.g. Hurricane Katrina * Founder Effect
* Start with a group of individuals who goes & establishes a colony somewhere else * Genetic variation with the founders of the new colony * e.g. Ellis Von Syndrome
* Recessive disorder
* Causes dwarfism & polytactism (extra fingers)
* Occurs at higher rates among the Amish because it’s a close population with a high birthrate * Can be traced to one of the founders * Difference of Bottleneck & Founder effect is where you begin * Bottleneck is with a large population * Founder is with a small, closed population

* Natural Selection
* Balanced polymorphism (Heterozygote Advantage)
* Maintenance of 2 or more alleles in a population due to selective advantage of the heterozygote * Get selected out & have an advantage * Sickle Cell Allele
* Recessive disorder
* Found in equatorial Africa & parts of India
* Deformed red blood cells because it deforms hemoglobin
* Causes anemia, pain, & death
* Malaria
* Disease caused by parasite that attack red blood cells
* Connection between Malaria & Sickle Cell
* If you’re homozygous normal, you’re more apt to get malaria→ fitness goes down * Carriers of sickle cell are protected from malaria because the parasite can’t reproduce * Both homozygous phenotypes aren’t good, but being a carrier is good * Same relationship between Tay-Sachs disorder & tuberculosis * Carriers of Tay-Sachs are protected from TB * As well as the relationship between cystic fibrosis as a protector against cholera HUMAN VARIATION * “Voyages of Discovery” (15th-17th Century)

* Moving out to discover the world
* Encountering difference in humans
* Monogenism: all humans were descendants of a single original pair & any variation in humans is due to environmental variation * Polygenism: variation in humans is a result of different original pairs * Early Studies (early 18th-19th Century) * Describing & classifying variation

* People categorized based on observable features like skin, head shape, etc. * Word “race” came into being * No consensus on number of races &
what constituted race * Mid 19th Century * Biological determinism

* Behavioral attributes are governed or associated with biological attributes * Just because you look a certain way means you’ll act a certain way * Today, people still think with that kind of mindset RACE

* Common definition
* Species: as in the human race
* Cultural/ethnic identity
* Religious identity
* Physical characteristics
* “Ethnicity” & “Ancestry” are used as a substitute for race * Some argue “race” doesn’t exist * Problems:
* Racism
* Not about how you look, but how people assign meaning to how you look * One group is superior over another * Not reliable way to distinguish people
* There will always be many expectations
* Entire populations cannot be categorized
* Genetic variation
* More variation within a population subgroup than there’s between different subgroups * More genetically similar than they are different * Definition from biological anthropology perspective

* One polytypic species
* Geographic pattern to phenotype variation
* Cultural affiliation with biological effects
* People who share common customs, language, belief systems, etc. married other people similar to themselves * Cline * Refers to gradual phenotype or genetic variation over geographic space * Don’t draw boundaries * “there are no races on the planet, only clines”

* Environmental stress
* Rain, temperature, altitude
* Humans response to environmental stress
* Cultural: behavioral modification in response to stress * Wearing a coat because it’s cold * Compensate for pressure on your body
* Acclimatization (Physiological)
* Individual response to an environment pressure, but it’s involuntary * Reversible & short term (temporary) * e.g. sunburn, increase in red blood cell production in high altitudes, increase in sweating * Developmental * Happens at individual level, but is observable at population level * Ability to respond to stress is inherited * Response occurs during a critical period of growth & development * Not reversible, not short term * e.g. high altitude populations have larger hearts, chests, & lung capacity, different oxygen transportation * Genetic (Population) * Characterize a population

* Inherited, long term, non-reversible
* Occurs at birth because it’s inherited
* “the adaptation”
* e.g. skin color
* happens regardless of specific circumstance of the individual * Purpose? To Maintain Homeostasis * Ability of organism to maintain internal equilibrium
* Food, water, temperature
* Darker skin color in equatorial regions where there’s more solar radiation * All humans have same # of meloncites, but different in how much they produce * Melanin protects from UV radiation * More melanin naturally → can withstand more UV light

* Hence skin pigmentation is protection from solar radiation * In an area where solar radiation is greater, those who have more melanin will have the advantage & better fitness * Vitamin D Hypothesis * The body’s need for vitamin D and for UV radiation to produce it provided a selective pressure for lighter skin in the northern latitudes * Less pigmentation (at northern latitude) = better vitamin D synthesis TEMPERATURE EXTREMES * Over 120 degrees to -60 degrees is the temperature range for survival *
We respond better to heat than to cold * Heat

* Sweating: response to extreme heat (body’s way of trying to cool us down) * Vasodilatation: capillaries at skin’s surface dilate * Moving blood away from the core & out towards the surface * e.g. muscles turn pink when exercising * Cold

* Shivering: automatic response
* Trying to generate heat
* Burns a lot of nutrients
* Vasoconstriction: capillaries near the skin’s surface constricts * Decrease blood flow to surface of your skin * Keeps vital organs bathed in blood & warm
* Could lead to death in tissues like frostbites
* Body Metabolic Rate (BMR)
* Colder climate people have higher BMR than those in warmer climates * Bergmann’s & Allen’s Rule * Pattern/general relationship between climate & body size/shape * Bergmann’s Rule: body size will increase as distance from the equator decreases * Allen’s Rule: limb length decreases as distance from the equator increases OTHER ADAPTATIONS * Adapting to high altitudes

* Hypoxia: condition that develops when you don’t get enough oxygen * “oxygen starvation”

Cite this page

Study Guide for Anthropology Exam. (19 March 2016). Retrieved from

"Study Guide for Anthropology Exam" StudyScroll, 19 March 2016,

StudyScroll. (2016). Study Guide for Anthropology Exam [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 6 December, 2023]

"Study Guide for Anthropology Exam" StudyScroll, Mar 19, 2016. Accessed Dec 6, 2023.

"Study Guide for Anthropology Exam" StudyScroll, Mar 19, 2016.

"Study Guide for Anthropology Exam" StudyScroll, 19-Mar-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 6-Dec-2023]

StudyScroll. (2016). Study Guide for Anthropology Exam. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 6-Dec-2023]

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get your custom essay..

get custom paper

We use cookies to personalyze your web-site experience. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy.