Synopsis of El Filibusterismo

Simoun – Crisostomo Ibarra in disguise, left for dead at the end of Noli Me Tangere, has resurfaced as the wealthy jeweler, Simoun, sporting a beard, blue-tinted glasses, and a revolver. Fueled by his mistreatment at the hands of the Spaniards and his fury at Maria Clara’s fate. Basilio – Son of Sisa. A graduating Medical Student who befriended Simoun. This is the same Basilio introduced in Noli Me Tangere. Isagani Villamor – Basilio’s friend, ex-beau of Paulita Gomez and the man who removed the explosive lamp from the Captain Tiago’s house, thus sabotaging Simoun’s plans. Kabesang Tales – Cabeza Telesforo Juan de Dios, a former cabeza de barangay (barangay head) of Sagpang, a barangay in San Diego’s neighboring town Tiani, who resurfaced as the feared Luzón bandit Matanglawin Don Custodio – Custodio de Salazar y Sánchez de Monteredondo, a famous “journalist” who was asked by the students about his decision for the Academia de Castellano. In reality, he is quite an ordinary fellow who married a rich woman in order to be a member of Manila’s high society.

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Paulita Gomez – The girlfriend of Isagani and the niece of Doña Victorina, the old Indio who passes herself off as a Peninsular, who is the wife of the quack doctor Tiburcio de Espadaña. In the end, she and Juanito Peláez are wed, and she dumps Isagani, believing that she will have no future if she marries him. Macaraig – One of Isagani’s classmates at the University of Santo Tomas. He is a rich student and serves as the leader of the students yearning to build the Academia de Castellano. Father Florentino – Isagani’s godfather, and a secular priest; was engaged to be married, but chose to be a priest after being pressured by his mother, the story hinting at the ambivalence of his decision as he chooses an assignment to a remote place, living in solitude near the sea.

Juli San Jose – Juliana de Dios, the girlfriend of Basilio, and the youngest daughter of Kabesang Tales. To claim her father from the bandits, she had to work as a maid under the supervision of Hermana Penchang. Eventually, she was freed but committed suicide after Father Camorra attempted to rape her. Juanito Pelaez – A favorite student of the professors. They belong to the noble Spanish ancestry. Doña Victorina – Victorina delos Reyes de Espadaña, known in Noli Me Tangere as Tiburcio de Espadaña’s cruel wife. She is the aunt of Paulita Gomez, and favors Juanito Pelaez than Isagani. Although of Indio ideology, she considers herself as one of the Peninsular. Father Camorra – The lustful parish priest of Tiani, San Diego’s adjacent town who has longtime desires for young women. He nearly raped Juli causing the latter to commit suicide. Ben-Zayb – The pseudonym of Abraham Ibañez, a journalist who believes he is the “only” one thinking in the Philippines.

Ben-Zayb is an anagram of Ybanez, an alternate spelling of his name. Placido Penitente – A student of the University of Santo Tomas who was very intelligent and wise but did not want, if not only by his mother’s plea, to pursue his studies. He also controls his temper against Padre Millon, his physics teacher. Hermana Penchang – Sagpang’s rich pusakal (gambler). She offers Huli to be her maid so the latter can obtain money to free Kabesang Tales. Disbelieving of Huli and her close friends, she considers herself as an ally of the friars. Tiburcio de Espadaña – Don Tiburcio is Victorina de Espadaña’s lame husband. He is currently on hiding with Father Florentino. Father Írene – Captain Tiago’s spiritual adviser. Although reluctant, he helped the students to establish the Academia de Castellano after being convinced by giving him a chestnut.

The only witness to Captain Tiago’s death, he forged the last will and testament of the latter so Basilio will obtain nothing from the inheritance. Quiroga – A Chinese businessman who dreamed of being a consul for his country in the Philippines. He hid Simoun’s weapons inside his house. Don Timoteo Pelaez – Juanito’s father. He is a rich businessmen and arranges a wedding for his son and Paulita. He and Simoun became business partners. Tandang Selo – Father of Kabesang Tales. He raised the sick and young Basilio after he left their house in Noli me Tangere. He died in an encounter on the mountains with his son Tales. Father Fernández – The priest-friend of Isagani. He promised to Isagani that he and the other priests will give in to the students’ demands. Sandoval – The vice-leader of Macaraig’s gang. A Spanish classmate of Isagani, he coerces his classmates to lead alongside him the opening of the Spanish language academy.

Hermana Báli – Another gambler in Tiani. She became Huli’s mother-figure and counselor; helped to release Kabesang Tales from the hands of bandits. Father Millon – The Physics teacher of the University of Santo Tomas. He always becomes vindictive with Placido and always taunts him during class. Tadeo – Macaraig’s classmate. He, along with the other three members of their gang, supposedly posted the posters that “thanked” Don Custodio and Father Irene for the opening of the Academia de Castellano. Tano – Kabesang Tales’s elder son after his older sister, Lucia died in childhood. He is currently one of the Guardia Civil.

He then returned under the name tae mo Father Hernando de la Sibyla – A Dominican friar introduced in Noli Me Tangere, now the vice-rector of the University of Santo Tomas Pecson-classmate who had no idea on the happenings occurring around him. He suggested that they held the mock celebration at the panciteria. . Father Bernardo Salvi- Former parish priest of San Diego, now the director and chaplain of the Santa Clara convent. Captain Tiago – Santiago delos Santos, although making a cameo appearance, Captain Tiago is Maria Clara’s stepfather and the foster-father to Basilio.


After 13 years, Crisostomo Ibarra returns as Simoun, a rich jeweler and a confidant of the Captain-General; he was called “Brown Cardinal” or “Black Eminence” Simuon’s obssessions:
To rescue Maria Clara from the nunnery

To foment revolution against Spanish masters by encouraging corruption, oppression of the masses, moral degredation, and other abuses Begins on white-painted roundish shape steamer called “Tabo” which depicts the following symbolisms divided into two strata – inequality in government systems very slow – progress as governed by Spaniards

painted white – clean on the outside, dirty on the inside roundish shape – no definite direction

Simuon’s true identity is discovered by Basilio while visiting the grave of his mother Sisa. Basilio is a graduating medical student and was discriminated by his peers and teachers Simoun keeps in close contact with the bandit group of Kabesang Tales, a former cabeza de barangay who suffered misfortunes at the hands of the friars. His son, Tano, who became a civil guard was captured by bandits, his daughter Julî had to work as a maid to get enough ransom money for his freedom, and his father, Tandang Selo, suffered a stroke and became mute Simoun has Quiroga, a Chinese man hoping to be appointed consul to the Philippines, smuggle weapons into the country.

Simoun wishes to attack during a stage play with all of his enemies in attendance. He, however, abruptly aborts the attack when he learns from Basilio that María Clara had died earlier that day in the convent. Basilio was accused of disturbance and is left in prison as the other students are released. Juli, Basilio’s girlfriend and the daughter of Kabesang Tales, tries to ask Father Camorra’s but as Camorra tries to rape her, Juli jumps over the balcony to her death. Basilio finally joins Simoun’s revolution. Simoun then tells Basilio his plan at the wedding of Paulita Gómez and Juanito.

His plan was to conceal an explosive which contains nitroglycerin inside a Kerosene lamp that Simoun will give to the newlyweds as a gift during the wedding reception Isagani upon hearing the secret rushes into the house and hurls the lamp into the river where it explodes. Simoun is seized by the soldiers but he escaped and sought refuge in Padre Florentino’s home. He took poison and confessed to Florentino his true indentity and his plans. He consoles the dying man and eventually prays for the dead jeweler. He takes the chest of treasure and throws it into the sea. NOLI AND FILI COMPARED

NOLI – romantic, work of the heart, book of feeling, has freshness, color, humor, lightness, wit FILI – political, work of the head, book of thought, has bitterness, hatred, pain, violence, sorrow RIZAL’S UNFINISHED THIRD NOVEL

third novel, more ethical than political (September 22,1891) deals with habits and customs of Filipinos
talks about friar curate and lieutenant of Guardia Civil
supposed to be humorous, satirical and witty
wrote the novel in Tagalog while boarding steamer Melbourne in Marseilles bound for Hongkong did not finish it because his Tagalog was inadequate
no title; consists of 44 pages(33cmx21cm) in Rizal’s handwriting preserved in the Bureau of Public Libraries
begins with solemn burial of Prince Tagulima, son of Sultan Zaide to Ternate hero of the novel is Kamandagan, a descendant of Lakan-Dula, last king of Tondo wound probably caused greater scandal and more Spanish vengeance RIZAL’S OTHER UNIFINISHED NOVELS

in Tagalog; writeen in light sarcastic style
only two chapters are finished
consists of 20 pages, (34.2cm x 22cm)
Written in ironic Spanish
Wrote it during his exile in Dapitan to depict town life and customs Consists of 8 pages (23cm x 16cm)
About the life of Pili
No title
Pili – a town in Laguna
Characters: Padre Agaton(Spanish friar), Capitan Panchong & Capitana Barang, Cecilia(their daughter), Isagani (lover of Cecilia), Capitan Crispin(political rival of Panchong), Dr. Lopez(free thinker) About Cristobal

Cristobal – youthful Filipino student who returned from Europe Characters: Ameilia(his sweetheart), Capitan Ramon(father), a Dominican friar; a Ranciscan friar; Spanish Lieutenant of Guardia Civil IN HONGKONG, 1891-92

Rizal left Europe shortly after publication of El Filibusterismo (November 1891 to June 1892) His reasons for leaving:
Due to political differences with M.H. del Pilar and other Filipinos in Spain To lead Propaganda Movement in Hongkong
To be near the Philippines and family
Told del Pilar that he was retiring from Spain’s political arena to preserve unity among Filipinos in Europe Spent 7 happy months in Hongkong with his family
Had lucrative medical practice
Penned another letter in Hongkong for Governor Despujol(June 21,1892) to inform his coming to Manila RIZAL FALLS INTO SPANISH TRAP
After Rizal’s departure from Hongkong, the Spanish consul-general sent cablegram to Governor Despujol that the victim “is in the trap” A secret case was filed in Manila against Rizal for “anti-religious and anti-patriotic agitation” Despujol ordered his secretary Luis dela torre, to
find out if Rizal was a neutralized German citizen Rizal and his sister were fully unaware of Spanish duplicity

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Observation Narrative

Reasons for the change in divorce since 1969