Unit 7 – Play and learning in children’s education
Diploma in Child Care and Education Cache Level 3
E4 Include examples of different theoretical models of how children play and learn E5 Include an explanation of how observations can inform planning to meet children’s learning needs D2 Include an explanation of the key issues in recording assessments C1 Analyse the importance of planning and providing learning opportunities to meet children’s diverse needs E6 Include TWO (2) examples of information from agencies outside the setting which may contribute to the assessment of learning needs E7 Include TWO (2) plans for curriculum activities which show different approaches to planning learning opportunities D1 Provide evidence of how the planned curriculum activities can promote learning E8 Include information about the importance of consulting with parents and others when planning and providing learning opportunities E11 Include references and a bibliography
E4 Include examples of different theoretical models of how children play and learn E4 – There are many theorists who have contributed to the body of knowledge relating to how children play and learn. The one I am choosing to write about is Friedrich Froebel. He met Anton Gruner, which inspired him to start teaching. He put his theories into practice in 1818 then founded his first children’s garden in 1837. Where he said that there should be lots of sensory and first hand activates in nature, music and arts. This is used in my setting as they have a vegetable patch and each week a small group of children go out and do gardening. This encourages children to touch different texture. My setting turns this into an activity where they have to use expressions about what they are doing. He was the first theorist to write about the importance of play. He was a very strong believer in play to improve a child education. He also believed that play raised enjoyment and emotional wellbeing. So each child should develop their own personality and grow as individuals. This is done though play to encourage self-expression within play activities. He thought that this was the most spiritual play where children become most interactive, for example in the home corner they are acting and taking on a role in pretending to be someone else. This is known as symbolic play. Which in my setting is very promoted, child make their own decision what things are/do.. Children are very much encouraged to play outdoors in the garden.
The space indoors needs to be light with lots of space.. When his theory was first put into practice it was very formal. But he said that child should do instead of being shown. Children show their highest level of learning when playing. His theory is still very much used today as in most settings they encourage children to think/do for themselves. Trial and error. This shows how they will learn what works what doesn’t and how to deal with failure. Vygotsky is relevant in social development, as he studied cognitive development. He grew up in a large family, so he believed that “what a child can do in co-operation today he can do alone tomorrow”. This means that he believes that child can do things alone once they have had help. Children need lots of support from their family, friends, practitioners and any other multi-professional. He believes there is two types of speech, babbling when it’s a baby, then at around 2years the Childs language and thinking merges together which means they use language to construct thinking. Vygotsky says that we all have inner speech, which supports thinking for children’s external communication. Young children are unable to blend there inner and external speech, this means what they say does not always make sense as they have not thought about it properly. Vygotsky theory comes in stages. One stage is ‘the interrelationship between thought and language’. This means that ideas of language and memory are all mental functions.
This begins with interaction with others. When young children play they describe what’s happening in their game. For example a child is playing with a car and they commentate though saying “ now the car is going round the bend and bang into the wall”. As children grow they add more detail into their play. The next step is the ‘zone of proximal development’ which means the difference between problem solving a child can do independently and problem solving which the child is capable of doing with support. This defines how mature the child is and what level of development they are at. This help suggest a appropriate target for that individual. Each child has there zone of actual development this is the level they are already at but they all have a target to get them to the zone of proximal development. To reach the target that child need lots of help and not steps which are to big as this could knock there confidence. Another stage Vygotsky has is ‘the importance of play’ he believed that play provides essential skills to improve their social, personal, and professional activates.
This means that children can play and do things beyond what they can do in real life- such as play mums and dads, pretend to drive a car. Though play they talk to each other and pretend they are in a different world with only their friends. Play is another way they can reach the zone of proximal development. Reconstruction is another stage which means child experience the same situation again and again as they grow up. Each time they have this experience they can deal with it at a higher level. This means they reconstruct the experiences this is them moving to the proximal development. Another stage is ‘the importance of social interaction’ knowledge of speak in constructed between two people. This convocation is improving the Childs speech and vocabulary. Social interaction is linked to problem solving, planning and abstract thinking. The last stage is ‘ the cultural context’ which means children use tools which come from there one culture to help them with speech, writing and to help them functions effectively in society. The history of the child’s family and the Childs experiences are important o understand there cognitive development. E5 Include an explanation of how observations can inform planning to meet children’s learning needs D2 Include an explanation of the key issues in recording assessments C1 Analyse the importance of planning and providing learning opportunities to meet children’s diverse needs E5/D2/C1
When planning for children, getting the correct age, stage and ability is very important. The best way to do this is though observing the child. Observations provide the practitioners with the valuable information they need about the child being observed. The practitioner will be able to identify the Childs: ? Age, Stage and Ability
? Language and Communication
? Social interaction
? Behavioural needs/issues
? Emotional needs
? Likes/ dislikes
? Additional needs /problems
? Learning styles
Once the practitioner has discovered the needs of the child they can work on meeting them. The practitioner is then able to plan the progress of the child. The practitioner should look at the correct curriculum and plan the next step for the child. If the child is under 5 years then the practitioner will look at the Early Years Foundation Stage, if the child is over 5 then they will use the National Curriculum. Though referring to the correct curriculum you will ensure you plan for the right step for the individual child. But also the activity should provide experiences for the whole class. This progress happens for every child which means they are treated equally and are offered the correct steps to achieve their age stage and ability. Though observing you can also spot if a child has a problem which the parents evolved meant or a member of the multi-agency team. For example if a practitioner observes a child and notices that the child has speech problems. This problem will be wrote up, then discussed with parents explain they practitioners query. From this talk the practitioner can find out if there has been any worries about it at home.
This issues would be monitored over a period of time , to see if there is improvements or more a decrease in the Childs speech. If no improvement arise then the parents and staff will have meeting to suggest the best way forwards. In this case it would be speech therapy . the parent would take the child to a speech therapist , the child will then be given exercises to do at home and in school. No matter what the problem all children should be offered and treat equally to ensues the best start in life to thrive. When observing you have to ensure you use the correct method for what you are observing. For example The Time sample observations are interesting and versatile. They provide information about what a child dose at regular intervals thought the day. For example you have to observe them every 15 minutes for the session. Time sample can be structures and codes can be used. This observation is good at looking at the child’s all round development. For example social interactions while the child is playing indoors with the sand but also 20 minutes later when the child was playing outside on the bike. To use the method the practitioner has to decide how structured the time sample needs to be. If it is structures it will have to be planned and typed up in advance and the observe needs to be familiar with the codes. Another thing you need to decide is how long the intervals need to be between each observation. For example a 15 minute interval for a whole day of observing. Now you have to record what you see at the correct times in the day. When observing you have to remain professional and show a non-judgemental attitude. This means that the practitioner has to be honest about what they are seeing and hearing.
They are unable to put their own opinions into the observation. This will make the observation truthful and reliable. If the practitioner loses trust then there observations will be seen as entrusts worthy. Another way there could be a issues with the observation is if the child is ill, distressed, or generally just not themselves. This will make the observations invalid, as it is not a true account of the children when they are fit well and themselves. Another way the observation would be invalid is if it is cut short because of the practitioner is needed somewhere else in the setting. As this would mean that a large chuck of the observation has been missed. Keeping the observations safe and confidential is very important. This mean that the child’s name should be in initials or child A, child B. these documents should be stored in a lock cupboard, and these should only be shown to staff members, any multi agencies that are involved and the child’s parents. Though out doing all of these observations and planning the practitioner has to ensure they are meeting all legal requirements like the Early Years Foundation Stage, which links to the child care act 2006, Sex discrimination act, Every Child Matter which links to children act 2004 and the Equality act 2010: this means that all children have to be treated equally and get the same opportunities of learning. To achieve this setting having a strong and trusted relationship will mean that all the children get a positive contribution from there parents to offer them best. In a setting it is important that they include all children. No matter what religion , if have special needs, physical disabilities or ethnic group they are. The setting should take this into interest and try and do stuff to support there needs and belief. This could be teaching other children about disabilities. So if a child is Chinese they could do a special day especially around Chinese New Year. The settings have to think about not being sexist.
They also will have to think about what toys they get out for a child’s age and stage. But some children with older sibling could be playing with toys above their age and stage as they have been influenced by others. Some children in my setting have speech problem, this means you can’t treat them different, but you have to help and listen to their speech improving. All children have to right to grow, learn and develop as an individual to their own belief. In my setting they have many positive ways which reflect diversity, some of these are different race/gender dolls, books, different snacks, posters and the staff have learnt simple signage to help communicate with children as they recognise signs better than speech. If the observation and planning goes wrong it could affect children confidence though doing a activity they do feel confidence with. This related to Vygotsky theory: “potential is only reached if the child and the environment are guided by the adult helping the child to progress by scaffolding.” (Child Care and Education 4th edition, P. Tassoni et al, pg 284) This means that children get support from adults to gain confidence in what they are doing, then when the practitioner feels the child is doing well they will help them less. This is the practitioner removing pieces of scaffolding.
If a child feels unable to do an activity they could become aggressive towards other this could mean that a child’s emotional state could go down hill though the steps being to big. If the setting has problems with parents this could effect how the child thrives in there learning. From the setting prospective the legal requiments might not be met which could effect children’s safety and learning. The other problem would be if the staff do not have the correct knowledge or resources to help the children succeed. E6 Include TWO (2) examples of information from agencies outside the setting which may contribute to the assessment of learning needs E6 – A health visitor is a fully qualified nurse who has had special training to help families and young children. With the first few years in a child/families life. This member of the health care team is very crucial as there aim is to support and help families. They also work as part of the community to prevent illness and to promote the health and well being of the whole community..
Their aim is to improve the health of families and children in the crucial first few years of life. Working in the community, they prevent illness and promote health and wellbeing. They are able to refer children to other muti-proffessional like speech therapist, social services. A speech/language therapist is there to treat language and communication problems with babies and children. Some therapist can help people who have swallowing problems. Whatever the case they work closely with parents, teachers and other multi-professionals. They can visit settings like nurseries, schools, homes, hospitals and local health clinics. They can help forming words/sounds , understanding language, swallowing problems and co- ordinating facial movements. Children n who have: Hearing impairment
All information that is shared with parents will be passed onto any other person that is there to help the child. Most children get given exercise to do.
E6 Include TWO (2) examples of information from agencies outside the setting which may contribute to the assessment of learning needs E6 – A health visitor is a fully qualified nurse who has had special training to help families and young children. With the first few years in a child/families life. This member of the health care team is very crucial as there aim is to support and help families. They also work as part of the community to prevent illness and to promote the health and well being of the whole community.. Their aim is to improve the health of families and children in the crucial first few years of life. Working in the community, they prevent illness and promote health and wellbeing. They are able to refer children to other muti-proffessional like speech therapist, social services. A speech/language therapist is there to treat language and communication problems with babies and children. Some therapist can help people who have swallowing problems. Whatever the case they work closely with parents, teachers and other multi-professionals. They can visit settings like nurseries, schools, homes, hospitals and local health clinics. They can help forming words/sounds , understanding language, swallowing problems and co- ordinating facial movements. Children n who have: Hearing impairment
All information that is shared with parents will be passed onto any other person that is there to help the child. Most children get given exercise to do.
Making the cone of the volcano- blend 2 cups of salt, 6 cups of flour, 4 tbsp of cooking oil, and 2 cups of water. The mixture should end up smooth and firm. Now mould the dough round the bottle into a volcano shape. Do not cover the top. Ask for adults assistant to Fill the bottle with warm water and a tsp on red food colouring. Add 6 tsp of washing detergent into the bottle. (this helps tap the bubble which produce the reaction of larva. Add 2 tbsp of baking soda to the solution.
Slowly add vinegar into the solution and watch it erupt. Tips:
The red larva is the result of the reaction between the baking soda and vinegar. This reaction produces carbon dioxide gas. This also happens in a really eruption. The carbon dioxide gas creates a pressure which builds up inside the bottle until bubbles form a volcanic explosion Though adding food colouring it will result in a red-orange colour which give the impression of larva. This links to the national curriculum. Where in key stage one students learn how to observe and ask questions. The students learn to work in groups to collect evidence from watching a experiment to answer the original question. Children will also learn about simple scientific ideas. They also learn to gather the evidence and decide if the test was fair or not. The groups communicate about sharing ideas and using scientific language. They also gain skills though drawing table, charts and tables. Second activity : reception
Aim : to create and present a story sack with the children. This is linked to communication language and literacy- page 46 of EYFS- situations where children use actions and some talk to support and think about what they are
doing. Rationale: This activity will really help communication language and literacy. This is important for them to learn and improve their speech and understanding of different language techniques. This activity will also help their creative development though creating their own ideas of a character. Creative development is individual to each child and it can never be wrong. Learning outcomes for children
PSED-personal social and emotional development: Socialising in a group whilst creating the props and they also have to perform the story with their props in front of the class and listen to other groups as well. When performing they can act out their emotions and show a understanding to emotions. CLL- communication, language and literacy: communicating with other children about how to create the props. In this group there will be an adult who they can ask questions. The children will should be able to remember the story and perform it to the class, once the performance is finished the teacher could ask the other children questions PSRN-problem solving, reasoning and numeracy: when creating the props they will need to know how much of each material they will need and how to share equipment and take turns. I will be asking them questions like “how many props do we need to make?” PD- physical development: they will be developing there fine motor skills creating the props. The children need to be encouraged to create the props how they imagine them looking.
There gross motor skills will be developed though the children acting out and using their props to tell the story. CD-creative development: the children will be designing there prop themselves which the practitioner must praise and encourage the child to have a go. The children can never do this wrong, they are not aiming to copy the picture but make it their own. The children also can create and perform the story in their own way. KUW- knowledge and understanding of the world : is after the story when we reflect and connect they story to everyday life and things around us. E.g.; if a animal eats breakfast in the story, I will then ask the children what they had. Learning outcomes for students: I will learn how to write out a activity plan. During the activity I will observing the children and how they cope with the activity. After the activity I will look for where I can improve and adjust to full fill the children’s potential. I will also see if there
is another links I can make to the EYFS. I will also be able to improve my own skills of how to talk, encourage and praise to the children. Resources:• Spoon
Pictures of the characters
The story book
Reading/ creating/ performing area.
Planning and preparation:
Choose the story
Get the craft table ready
Read the story
Encourage their creative ideas
Help them practice
Perform story sack to whole class
Ask/ answer questions
Pick a story
Read the story to a group of 6
Let them choose a character (if a problem put all in a hat and let the children choose) Explain they are going to create the character they have chosen themselves, in the arts and craft area with all the creative materials we have got. Get the children’s sleeves rolled up and aprons on with the picture of there character next to them. • If the children ask for help then the staff will help and encourage the whole group. Once props have been created and dried the group can
practice three way of telling the story though the props. The practitioner can read the story while the children act it out if they do not have the confidence to do it all themselves. Perform the story to the whole class.
Then have question time at the end.
E8 Include information about the importance of consulting with parents and others when planning and providing learning opportunities Consulting with parents and others when planning and providing learning opportunities for children is very important because you staff can find out child’s likes/dislikes and their interests. This is important to discuss with parents/carers as they know the child the best and have a better understanding of the child ethnicity, linguistic ability and culture. This means that the parents get a chance to discuss and explain thing to do with their personal family and beilfs. Though having a good relationship with children’s parents mean you can communicate and discuss the child without any issues. This means that staff have to value parents ideas, contribution and their expertise as parents. Staff have to record children’s life within the setting this could be done though learning journals and other forms of observations. These are shared with parents to discuss the child, and the next step for them. C1 Analyse the importance of planning and providing learning opportunities to meet children’s diverse needs C1 – when children join a setting there parents share information about their likes/dislikes , and enjoyments.
From this information the child’s key worker will be able to plan activates to see how able they are to do it and if it is too easy/ hard. Once the child is caring out the activates the staff can then begin to assess the child’s. This is when the key worker works out what the child is caper bale to do. The key worker is there to support the child throughout there time at the setting, (appendix 6) , explains how the key person helps and fits into a eating. This is a starting point of the child’s future. Where staff plan the next step to keep the child moving up the ladder. Assessment helps the practitioner to improve all there development skills. The staff learn and develop to know what strategies work for what children, as every child learns and develops in different ways. Each child’s capability is different so you have to consider this when planning as some children pick things up quickly where as others take a bit longer. This is very important for practitioners to learn this because we need to create aims for children and this is the best method to look at a children and to be able to plan for the future. This will improve and support there learning development , which will mean planning will constantly be changing. The child will be meeting there short term plan and working towards there long term target. For staff to carry on planning to meet the child’s needs they have to observe the child. Though observing you can see how a child plays, what their interest are and how they learn. You will also see how a child deals with a problem, weather they try an fix it or walk away. This is how I get to know each child’s different way of doing things. E11 Include references and a bibliography
Child care & education 2010 BruceT et al Holder Education, OxonChild care & education,2007, Taconic et a, Heinmann,OxfordChild care & education Level 2, 2007 TassoniP et a, Heinmann,Oxford http://www.nurseryworld.co.uk/news/719603/Assessment-learning/http://www.nurseryworld.co.uk/news/719603/Assessment-learning/?DCMP=ILC-SEARCH